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Errors made in authors’ names, journal or article titles, page numbers and dates may present barriers to retrieval of articles and may prevent giving credit to authors for their work.
Instead of beginning a paragraph by launching into a description of a previous study, such as “Williams (2004) found that…,” it is better to start by indicating something about why you are describing this particular study.
Here are some simple examples: Another example of this phenomenon comes from the work of Williams (2004).
Possible structures: Distant to close – the most distantly related to your work leading to the most closely related to your work.
Chronological – earliest related work to most recent related work.
The reference list is a reflection of the thoroughness of your review.
It also allows others to retrieve the publications you cite.For example: An example of the possible structure for a literature review: Introduction Establish the importance of the topic Number and type of people affected Seriousness of the impact Physical, psychological, economic, social aspects Definitions of key terms Literature review strategies Description of the extent and nature of the literature Overview of the organization of the rest of the review Body of the review Topic 1 Supporting evidence Topic 2 Supporting evidence Topic 3 Supporting evidence Summary of the review Discussion Conclusions Implications Suggestions for future research List of references After you have written your first draft, use this checklist to review your progress: Like any effective argument, the literature review must have some kind of structure.For example, it might begin by describing a phenomenon in a general way along with several studies that demonstrate it, then describing two or more competing theories of the phenomenon, and finally presenting a hypothesis to test one or more of the theories.You have discovered, retrieved, evaluated, synthesized, and organized the information you need for your literature review.It’s time to turn that stack of articles and papers and notes into a literature review. …clearly describe the questions that are being asked.One way to do this is to begin the literature review by summarizing your argument even before you begin to make it, “In this article, I will describe two apparently contradictory phenomena, present a new theory that has the potential to resolve the apparent contradiction, and finally present a novel hypothesis to test the theory.” Another way is to open each paragraph with a sentence that summarizes the main point of the paragraph and links it to the preceding points.These opening sentences provide the “transitions” that many beginning researchers have difficulty with.Literature reviews also define the primary concepts.While this information can appear in any order, these are the elements in all literature reviews.The purpose is to lead your reader further into the body of the literature review.In the introduction, you will: Summarize your literature review, discuss implications, and create a space for future or further research needed in this area.