Khan Academy Critical Thinking

Khan Academy Critical Thinking-65
Boiling potatoes in water is a sufficient[br]condition for cooking them, since it's true that boiling potatoes is [br]enough to cook them.However, boiling potatoes in water is not [br]a necessary condition for cooking them, since you can cook them in many other [br]ways: frying them, grilling them, baking them, [br]roasting them.

Boiling potatoes in water is a sufficient[br]condition for cooking them, since it's true that boiling potatoes is [br]enough to cook them.However, boiling potatoes in water is not [br]a necessary condition for cooking them, since you can cook them in many other [br]ways: frying them, grilling them, baking them, [br]roasting them.In the next few videos, I'll talk a bit[br]more about each type of argument. An argument is a set of statements, called[br]its premises, that are meant to give you a reason to believe some further statement[br]called the argument's conclusion.

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Philosophers sometimes put this by saying[br]that Q is true only if P is true.

Let's consider a case to helps us get [br]clear on this.

"Merely taking the test isn't sufficient [br]for passing it." "The lawyer convinced the jury that there is sufficient evidence to [br]convict the accused." "Pain is a necessary part of every human[br]life." "Practice is really necessary for [br]success." But what exactly do these words mean?

If P is necessary for Q, then Q cannot be[br]true unless P is true.

Now this is a special, technical use of[br]the word "valid." In ordinary life, we often use this word[br]to mean something like good, cogent, or reasonable.

Like if you're disagreeing with someone[br]about something, and they respond to a claim you make by saying something that[br]seems pretty reasonable to you, you might say, "Well, I guess you have[br]a valid point." Though that's what the word often means[br]in ordinary life, it's not what the word means here.You could steer well but still drive badly[br]for other reasons.Here is an example of a sufficient but [br]not necessary condition.There is nothing else you must do in order[br]to get a perfect score.If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.and *.are unblocked. I'm Jeff Pynn, and I teach philosophy[br]at Northern Illinois University.In my earlier Introduction to Critical[br]Thinking video, I described the difference between deductive arguments and ampliative[br]arguments.Now it's a little harder to think of a [br]sufficient condition for getting accepted to a university.But consider some seventeen year old who[br]just won the Nobel Prize in chemistry.And finally here is an example of a [br]necessary and sufficient condition: getting all of the answers correct on a [br]test is necessary for getting a perfect score[br]on the test, because you will not get a perfect score [br]on the test unless you get all the answers correct.Getting all of the answers correct is also[br]a sufficient condition for getting[br]a perfect score, because getting all of the answers correct[br]is enough to get a perfect score.

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