Very often, they are analyzed by following the principles of the content analysis method (Krippendorff ).
Very often, they are analyzed by following the principles of the content analysis method (Krippendorff ).Tags: Problem Solving PostersImmigration Research PapersCompare Essay Thesis StatementHow To Quote In Research PaperProblem Solving AgentHow Do You Write A Good Comparative Essay
This study is the first one to be based on a comprehensive model of reflective writing with the following eight categories that has been derived from 24 models of reflective writing: (breadth of reflection).
The aim is to show that automated methods can be used to reliably draw inferences about the presence (and absence) of reflection in texts.
There has been great success with the extensive research into automated text analysis methods for educational contexts (Dringus and Ellis ).
Despite these research successes showing the potential of automated text analysis for education, there has been not much research regarding the automated text analytics of reflection.
Many higher education disciplines make use of reflective writing as part of their educational programs, such as teachers’ pre-service training, early childhood education, business, physical therapy, literature, psychology (Dyment and O’Connell ).
Reflective Thinking Definition Essays Purpose Of Writing An Essay
Through writing, students capture their reflective thoughts to better understand their own experience.These findings enable reflection analytics that is immediate and scalable.) is an important educational practice recognized on national and international levels.The worldwide operating Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has endorsed reflective thinking as important for a “successful life and well-functioning society” (Rychen and Salganik ).Despite the importance of reflection for education, there is little research on artificial intelligence techniques to automate the analysis of writings regarding reflective thinking.Currently, the common educational practice to analyze and assess reflective writings is a manual process.However, as discussed later in this work, some commonalities exist between the various theories of reflection.For the purpose of this paper, we define reflection as follows: Reflective thinking is a conscious, goal-oriented cognitive process that seeks to learn solutions to personally important, often weakly defined, ambiguous problems of past and present experience and anticipated future situations that often involve thinking about the important elements of the experience, a critical analysis of the problem including the analysis of the thinkers’ own personal perspective and feelings as well as the perspective of others in order to determine lessons-learned or future plans.).To test the automated analysis of reflection in writings, machine learning models were built based on a random sample of 80% of the sentences.These models were then tested on the remaining 20% of the sentences.Overall, the standardized evaluation shows that five out of eight categories can be detected automatically with substantial or almost perfect reliability, while the other three categories can be detected with moderate reliability (Cohen’s κ ranges between .53 and .85).The accuracies of the automated analysis were on average 10% lower than the accuracies of the manual analysis.