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The Outcome/Change (O/C) Matrix (Oinas-Kukkonen, 2010a, 2010b, 2013), in short, tracks change on two axes: change and outcome.
Groundwork for understanding persuasion in human behaviour change through the human-computer environment has been laid by the socio-psychological paradigm and theories, and an acknowledged key element in behaviour change is the role of attitude in the intention-behaviour gap.
The said gap is explored in the present paper by means of a systematic literature review of how theories of self-schema and transformative learning have been used thus far in researching behaviour change support systems.
The section also discusses the focused frameworks in the field of persuasive technology.
For the design and development of these systems, Oinas-Kukkonen and Harjumaa (2009) provide a Persuasive Systems Design (PSD) model that draws together theories around persuasive technology and their psychological foundations, and proposes practical design and evaluation principles for the design and development of persuasive systems and, specifically, behaviour change support systems (BCSS) (Oinas-Kukkonen, 2010a, 2010b).
While psychological traits such as those identified by Petty and Cacioppo (1986) offer a relatively broad scope for tailored content in a persuasive system, for best effects it would appear beneficial to find further means of utilizing the full potential of modern information systems and offer persuasive content that does match the end-user’s needs, interests, personality, context and other relevant factors.
In other words, in striving to match systems to their users, the field could be enriched by exploring further means of understanding end-user traits when it comes to behaviour change.In the present literature review we seek to address this by exploring another behavioural theory that has been discussed in existing literature in connection with persuasion and behaviour change: the self-schema theory (Cacioppo, Petty, & Sidera, 1982; Markus, 1977).This theory deals with a person’s perception and generalization regarding himself or herself with reference to a specific behavioural domain (Markus, 1977; Markus & Wurf, 1987).Another question, however, is the malleability of a person’s concept of self.If one strategy for persuasive systems would be to match a message to the recipient, another avenue that can be seen is to try to influence the person’s thinking as such: his or her attitude and outlook as regards the behaviour change goal.Tailoring persuasive systems and messages to users is an important component of systems design (Fogg, 2003; Kaptein & Eckles, 2012; Oinas-Kukkonen & Harjumaa, 2009), but without knowing enough about the context and the individual receiving the message it is difficult to tailor the messages and their delivery effectively.So far strategies for addressing specific types of system users have included targeting specific change goals or users’ cognitive styles with positive results (Kaptein & Eckles, 2012; Kaptein Markopoulos, de Ruyter, & Aarts, 2015; Wheeler, Petty, & Bizer, 2005).An adult learning theory, transformative learning theory concerns a learning process for the purpose of the learner gaining ability to re-evaluate and change his or her own perspective as regards the surrounding world (Mezirow, 2009).The focus of change in transformative learning process is the learner’s own approach to his or her surroundings, and in the learner’s ability to engage in thinking about his or her own approach to situations.The results are expected particularly to support further research and system concepting in the field of persuasive technology and BCSSs.In this section of the article we provide an overview of relevant background to the presented literature review in terms of how the focused theories of self-schema and transformative learning map to persuasion and behaviour change.