Scientific Forming Essay

Compared with this shallow-water region, the soundings in deep water beyond the 100-fathom line are much less numerous; each year, however, there are large additions to our knowledge.

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Again, the relatively large area covered by the continental shelf between the shore-line and 100 fathoms points to the wearing away of the land by current and wave action.

On the Challenger charts all areas where the depth exceeds 3000 fathoms have been called “Deeps,” and distinctive names have been conferred upon them.

The areas marked out by the contour-lines of depth are now estimated as follows: -- Between the shore and 100 fms., 7,000,000 sq. Not only are the continental slopes the seat of many deposit-slips and seismic disturbances, but Mr.

Benest has given good reasons for believing that underground rivers sometimes enter the sea at depths beyond 100 fathoms, and there bring about sudden changes in deep water.

While it is easy to assume that the text itself is the only thing that matters, to get positive feedback and a good grade, every part of your paper plays a big role.

Choosing a title that incents people to read your essay because they’re curious and want to find out more, also allows you to find a fertile ground to showcase your knowledge, wisdom, and writing skills at the same time.I have redrawn the several contour-lines of depth in the great ocean-basins, after careful consideration of the most recent data, and these may now be regarded as a somewhat close approximation to the actual state of matters, with the possible exception of the great Southern and Antarctic Oceans, where there are relatively few soundings, but where the projected Antarctic Expeditions should soon be at work. It is interesting to note that the area within the 100-fathom line occupies 7,000,000 square geographical miles, whereas the area occupied by the next succeeding 900 fathoms (viz., between 1 fathoms) occupies only 10,000,000 square geographical miles.On the whole it may be said that the general tendency of recent soundings is to extend the area with depths greater than 1000 fathoms and to show that numerous volcanic cones rise from the general level of the floor of the ocean-basins up to various levels beneath the sea-surface. (or 7% of the sea-bed) ” 100 ” 1000 ” 10,000,000 ” ” (or 10% ” ” ) ” 1000 ” 2000 ” 22,000,000 ” ” (or 21% ” ” ) ” 2000 ” 3000 ” 57,000,000 ” ” (or 55% ” ” ) Over 3000 fathoms 7,000,000 ” ” (or 7% ” ” ) 103,000,000 sq. This points to a relatively rapid descent of the sea-floor along the continental slopes between 1 fathoms, and therefore confirms the results gained by actual soundings in this region, many of which indicate steep inclines or even perpendicular cliffs. In his opening address to the members of the British Association, at the Ipswich meeting, the President cast a retrospective glance at the progress that had taken place in the several branches of scientific inquiry from the time of the formation of the Association in 1831 down to 1895, the year in which were published the last two of the fifty volumes of Reports containing the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H. The study of marine phenomena had hitherto been almost entirely limited to the surface and shallow waters of the ocean, to the survey of coasts and of oceanic routes directly useful for commercial purposes. At the surface of the ocean, direct observation is possible, but our knowledge of the conditions prevailing in deep water, and of all that is there taking place, is almost wholly dependent on the correct working of instruments, the action of which at the critical moment is hidden from sight. This omission may be accounted for by the fact that, at the time of the formation of the British Association, knowledge concerning the ocean was, literally speaking, superficial. The difficulties connected with the exploration of the greater depths of the sea arise principally from the fact that, in the majority of cases, the observations are necessarily indirect.The deep soundings are scattered over the different ocean-basins in varying proportions, being now most numerous in the North Atlantic and South-west Pacific, and in these two regions the contour-lines of depth may be drawn in with greater confidence than in the other divisions of the great ocean-basins. Valdivia in the Atlantic, Indian, and Southern Oceans have not caused very great alteration in the position of the contour-lines on the Challenger maps, if we except one occasion in the South Atlantic when a depth of 2000 fathoms was expected and the sounding-machine recorded a depth of only 536 fathoms, and again in the great Southern Ocean when depths exceeding 3000 fathoms were obtained in a region where the contour-lines indicated between 10 fathoms.It may be pointed out that 659 soundings taken quite recently during cable surveys in the North Atlantic, although much closer together than is usually the case, and yielding much detailed information to cable engineers, have, from a general point of view, necessitated but little alteration in the contour-lines drawn on the Challenger bathymetrical maps published in 1895. This latter discovery suggests that the great depth recorded by Ross to the south-east of South Georgia may not be very far from the truth. From these results it appears that considerably more than half of the sea-floor lies at a depth exceeding 2000 fathoms, or over two geographical miles.It is not my intention on this occasion to attempt anything like a general review of the present state of oceanographic science.But, as nearly all the samples of marine deposits collected during the past thirty years have passed through my hands, I shall endeavour briefly to point out what, in general, their detailed examination teaches with respect to the present condition of the floor of the ocean, and I will thereafter indicate what appears to me to be the bearing of some of these results on speculations as to the evolution of the existing surface features of our planet.In the opinion of geodesists the geoid may in some places depart from the figure of the spheroid by 1000 feet.Still it is not likely that this surface of the geoid departs so widely from the mean ellipsoidal form as to introduce a great error into our estimates of the elevations and depressions on the surface of the lithosphere.

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